Overcoming the Hurdles: Challenges of NLP in Healthcare

challenges in nlp

Customer service chatbots are one of the fastest-growing use cases of NLP technology. The most common approach is to use NLP-based chatbots to begin interactions and address basic problem scenarios, bringing human operators into the picture only when necessary. Legal services is another information-heavy industry buried in reams of written content, such as witness testimonies and evidence.

What is the most challenging task in NLP?

Understanding different meanings of the same word

One of the most important and challenging tasks in the entire NLP process is to train a machine to derive the actual meaning of words, especially when the same word can have multiple meanings within a single document.

Yet, in some cases, words (precisely deciphered) can determine the entire course of action relevant to highly intelligent machines and models. This approach to making the words more meaningful to the machines is NLP or Natural Language Processing. A sixth challenge of NLP is addressing the ethical and social implications of your models. NLP models are not neutral or objective, but rather reflect the data and the assumptions that they are built on. Therefore, they may inherit or amplify the biases, errors, or harms that exist in the data or the society.

Empirical Analysis of Three Dimensions of Spoken Discourse: Segmentation, Coherence, and Linguistic Devices

In this article, I discussed the challenges and opportunities regarding natural language processing (NLP) models like Chat GPT and Google Bard and how they will transform teaching and learning in higher education. However, the article also acknowledges the challenges that NLP models may bring, including the potential loss of human interaction, bias, and ethical implications. To address the highlighted challenges, universities should ensure that NLP models are used as a supplement to, and not as a replacement for, human interaction. Institutions should also develop guidelines and ethical frameworks for the use of NLP models, ensuring that student privacy is protected and that bias is minimized. Another important challenge that should be mentioned is the linguistic aspect of NLP, like Chat GPT and Google Bard.

  • For example, businesses must ensure that survey questions are more representative of the objective, and data entry points, such as in retail, have a method of validating the data, such as email addresses.
  • This involves using machine learning algorithms to convert spoken language into text.
  • Our approach gives you the flexibility, scale, and quality you need to deliver NLP innovations that increase productivity and grow your business.
  • Section 3 deals with the history of NLP, applications of NLP and a walkthrough of the recent developments.
  • An Arabic text is partiallyvocalised 1 when the diacritical mark is assigned to one or maximum two letters in the word.
  • In summary, universities should consider the opportunities and challenges of using NLP models in higher education while ensuring that they are used ethically and with a focus on enhancing student learning rather than replacing human interaction.

The first objective of this paper is to give insights of the various important terminologies of NLP and NLG. Modern NLP applications often rely on machine learning algorithms to progressively improve their understanding of natural text and speech. NLP models are based on advanced statistical methods and learn to carry out tasks through extensive training. By contrast, earlier approaches to crafting NLP algorithms relied entirely on predefined rules created by computational linguistic experts. In fact, since my first research activities, I have been interested in artificial intelligence and machine learning, especially neural networks.

Here are some of the key challenges facing NLP in healthcare:

In the recent past, models dealing with Visual Commonsense Reasoning [31] and NLP have also been getting attention of the several researchers and seems a promising and challenging area to work upon. These models try to extract the information from an image, video using a visual reasoning paradigm such as the humans can infer from a given image, video beyond what is visually obvious, such as objects’ functions, people’s intents, and mental states. Wiese et al. [150] introduced a deep learning approach based on domain adaptation techniques for handling biomedical question answering tasks. Their model revealed the state-of-the-art performance on biomedical question answers, and the model outperformed the state-of-the-art methods in domains. Clinical documentation is a crucial aspect of healthcare, but it can be time-consuming and error-prone when done manually.

  • To deploy new or improved NLP models, you need substantial sets of labeled data.
  • NLP involves the use of computational techniques to analyze and model natural language, enabling machines to communicate with humans in a way that is more natural and efficient than traditional programming interfaces.
  • While traditional morphology is based on derivational rules, our description is based on inflectional ones.
  • One of the hallmarks of developing NLP solutions for enterprise customers and brands is that more often than not, those customers serve consumers who don’t all speak the same language.
  • This mixture of automatic and human labeling helps you maintain a high degree of quality control while significantly reducing cycle times.
  • We use closure properties to compare the richness of the vocabulary in clinical narrative text to biomedical publications.

Finally, the model was tested for language modeling on three different datasets (GigaWord, Project Gutenberg, and WikiText-103). Further, they mapped the performance of their model to traditional approaches for dealing with relational reasoning on compartmentalized information. CapitalOne claims that Eno is First natural language SMS chatbot from a U.S. bank that allows customers to ask questions using natural language. Customers can interact with Eno asking questions about their savings and others using a text interface. This provides a different platform than other brands that launch chatbots like Facebook Messenger and Skype.

2 State-of-the-art models in NLP

One example would be a ‘Big Bang Theory-specific ‘chatbot that understands ‘Buzzinga’ and even responds to the same. If you think mere words can be confusing, here is an ambiguous sentence with unclear interpretations. Despite the spelling being the same, they differ when meaning and context are concerned.

  • All these research interests led me to focus more now on deep learning methods and conduct my research activities on recent advances in data mining, which are the Volume and Velocity of data in the era of Big Data.
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
  • Startups planning to design and develop chatbots, voice assistants, and other interactive tools need to rely on NLP services and solutions to develop the machines with accurate language and intent deciphering capabilities.
  • Further, Natural Language Generation (NLG) is the process of producing phrases, sentences and paragraphs that are meaningful from an internal representation.
  • If the training data is not adequately diverse or is of low quality, the system might learn incorrect or incomplete patterns, leading to inaccurate responses.
  • Additionally, NLP can be used to provide more personalized customer experiences.

Each of these levels can produce ambiguities that can be solved by the knowledge of the complete sentence. The ambiguity can be solved by various methods such as Minimizing Ambiguity, Preserving Ambiguity, Interactive Disambiguation and Weighting Ambiguity [125]. Some of the methods proposed by researchers to remove ambiguity is preserving ambiguity, e.g. (Shemtov 1997; Emele & Dorna 1998; Knight & Langkilde 2000; Tong Gao et al. 2015, Umber & Bajwa 2011) [39, 46, 65, 125, 139]. They cover a wide range of ambiguities and there is a statistical element implicit in their approach. Healthcare AI companies now offer custom AI solutions that can analyze clinical text, improve clinical decision support, and even provide patient care through healthcare chatbot applications.

Lack of research and development

Unfortunately, most NLP software applications do not result in creating a sophisticated set of vocabulary. Scattered data could also mean that data is stored in different sources such as a CRM tool or a local file on a personal computer. This situation often presents itself when an organization may want to analyze data from multiple sources such as Hubspot, a .csv file, and an Oracle database. Companies are also looking at more non-traditional ways to bridge the gaps that their internal data may not fill by collecting data from external sources. Both individuals and organizations that work with arXivLabs have embraced and accepted our values of openness, community, excellence, and user data privacy.

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In sentiment analysis algorithms, labels might distinguish words or phrases as positive, negative, or neutral. Namely, the user profiling issue has been the focus of my research interests since the Tunisian revolution, where social networks played a prominent role. Currently, I am working on more advanced issues related to this topic, where I focus on the early detection of mental health disorders and suicidal intentions of social network users by analyzing their generated content.

Cognition and NLP

The metric of NLP assess on an algorithmic system allows for the integration of language understanding and language generation. Rospocher et al. [112] purposed a novel modular system for cross-lingual event extraction for English, Dutch, and Italian Texts by using different pipelines for different languages. The pipeline integrates modules for basic NLP processing as well as more advanced tasks such as cross-lingual named entity linking, semantic role labeling and time normalization. Thus, the cross-lingual framework allows for the interpretation of events, participants, locations, and time, as well as the relations between them. Output of these individual pipelines is intended to be used as input for a system that obtains event centric knowledge graphs.

challenges in nlp

For example, an e-commerce website might access a consumer’s personal information such as location, address, age, buying preferences, etc., and use it for trend analysis without notifying the consumer. The question becomes whether or not it is OK to mine personal data even if for the seemingly straightforward purpose of building metadialog.com business intelligence. We can apply another pre-processing technique called stemming to reduce words to their “word stem”. For example, words like “assignee”, “assignment”, and “assigning” all share the same word stem– “assign”. By reducing words to their word stem, we can collect more information in a single feature.


If you’re working with NLP for a project of your own, one of the easiest ways to resolve these issues is to rely on a set of NLP tools that already exists—and one that helps you overcome some of these obstacles instantly. Use the work and ingenuity of others to ultimately create a better product for your customers. The same words and phrases can have different meanings according the context of a sentence and many words – especially in English – have the exact same pronunciation but totally different meanings. Give this NLP sentiment analyzer a spin to see how NLP automatically understands and analyzes sentiments in text (Positive, Neutral, Negative). Our proven processes securely and quickly deliver accurate data and are designed to scale and change with your needs. An NLP-centric workforce will use a workforce management platform that allows you and your analyst teams to communicate and collaborate quickly.

challenges in nlp

But soon enough, we will be able to ask our personal data chatbot about customer sentiment today, and how we feel about their brand next week; all while walking down the street. Today, NLP tends to be based on turning natural language into machine language. But with time the technology matures – especially the AI component –the computer will get better at “understanding” the query and start to deliver answers rather than search results.


LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory), a variant of RNN, is used in various tasks such as word prediction, and sentence topic prediction. [47] In order to observe the word arrangement in forward and backward direction, bi-directional LSTM is explored by researchers [59]. In case of machine translation, encoder-decoder architecture is used where dimensionality of input and output vector is not known. Neural networks can be used to anticipate a state that has not yet been seen, such as future states for which predictors exist whereas HMM predicts hidden states.

What are the 3 pillars of NLP?

The 4 “Pillars” of NLP

As the diagram below illustrates, these four pillars consist of Sensory acuity, Rapport skills, and Behavioural flexibility, all of which combine to focus people on Outcomes which are important (either to an individual him or herself or to others).

Natural language processing is expected to become more personalized, with systems that can understand the preferences and behavior of individual users. Named Entity Recognition is the process of identifying and classifying named entities in text data, such as people, organizations, and locations. This technique is used in text analysis, recommendation systems, and information retrieval.


What are the three 3 most common tasks addressed by NLP?

One of the most popular text classification tasks is sentiment analysis, which aims to categorize unstructured data by sentiment. Other classification tasks include intent detection, topic modeling, and language detection.